REVIEWS OF BOOKS in the English translation by Konrad Bieber and Betsy Wing, may seem closer to a fictional romance than to the historical narrative of. Silence de la Mer, the story line is fairly straightforward. The book tells the story of a German officer, Werner von Ebrennac, who, during the German occupation. khadictasmimou.ml About the piece. Title: Meeres Stille (The silent sea) [Version for Piano solo.
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Le Silence de la mer is a French novel written during the summer of and published in Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version . Le Silence de la mer is a film by Jean-Pierre Melville. It was Melville's first feature film, . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version . Historiography, Memory, and the Evolution of Le Silence de la mer, Brett Bowles Pages: 68– Download PDF ( KB).
These planes create a sense of spatial dimensions far, near, right, middle, left, far-right, etc. But it must also be said that pitches C and D or Eb — much less often used — appear in prominent ways: the beginning of the piece and just before the repeating passage 3 bars before 13; long notes in the middle of a quick sequence 4 seconds, just before number 11B ; very loud and sustained notes.
It seems that these two pitches already form an opposing harmony, as will happen later in the piece. The spatial dimensions viewed in this variation are, in my view, the result of the contrasting use of extreme dynamics creating the sensations of near and far , and of different registers sensation of left, middle and right. This can be understood graphically through the following picture, where only notes played mf and louder are written, each note with an image appearing larger or smaller on the page corresponding to its dynamic level from the smallest mf to the biggest sfff or fff.
This second variation is characterised by 1. This will be changed in numbers 16 to 18 where Nunes again uses regular 9 seconds units; 5. These two planes, formed by the notes actually played and by their resonance, are perhaps the most salient characteristics of the beginning of this variation: the long pauses serve as a harmonic continuum — or pedal — for the resonance of one or more notes of the sostenuto chord G, Bb, D A D at number See chord 2.
The repetitive aspects of this variation are also very impressive, specially from numbers 13 to This second variation can be divided into smaller sections defined according to its harmonic basis and other characteristics.
The first a , from number 13 to number 15, is based on the chord harmonic field 1 and the resonance of the sostenuto chord close to it. It is also characterised by the use of a selection of small CHORD 1 rhythmic groups separated by long pauses. After a very expressive repetition of the note B 5 bars before 15 , the emergence of different notes and of the repetition of sostenuto notes begins a change that will lead to division b , based on another chord chord 2 of section B. Here fewer notes are interrupted by longer pauses, creating the effect of a slower movement.
Division c — from number 16 to 17 — is formed by six groups of two bars, each group with one chord. This time division in 9-second units will stay till number This last division is, perhaps, a kind of conclusion to this section B, using material already worked and coming close to the harmony presented at the beginning of B.
Variation III — Section C The third variation maintains the use of specific chords as sostenuto, but these are not as important as an harmonic basis for variation. This variation is characterised by: 1. In this variation Emmanuel Nunes creates the idea of space not only with the different dynamics, accents and registers but also with the rhythm and the use of independent counterpoint-like voices.
At number 18 Nunes uses both hands as independent parts, with different and autonomous rhythms, creating more possibilities in the uses of these planes: one for the sostenuto chord and one for each hand.
This variation can be divided into three smaller sections corresponding to the different use of planes and to different strategies of variation. The first number 18 is characterised by three counterpoint-like voices accompanied by sostenuto chords.
The second numbers 19 to 22 has a reduction in voices to a single melody and much less complicated and quick rhythm; it seems to be a kind of recitative using the basic substructure D, E, G, A, Bb and some other pitches, ending in a long fall.
The third and last section number 22 to double bar corresponds to the climax of the piece, with a highly complex and quick succession of sounds and long pauses. Here in number 22, the sostenuto notes — specially E — appear with much force, repeated many times in the different voices before resolving into the last two chords of the page.
All this evolution corresponds to an increase in dramatisation — quicker rhythms, more chords, more planes, more repetitions of sostenuto notes, repetitions of chords, at first with very long rests as in the beginning of the second variation and finally very fast in a continued succession of notes. This leads to a double bar, the main division of the piece. Variation IV— Sections D and E After number 23 or perhaps one bar before or one bar after the music changes completely.
The litany here, much marked by its harmonic features14, is also characterised by: 1. It is important to point out that this last variation begins in a very dramatic and expressive way, as a continuation of the climax at the end of the third variation, due to the insistent appearance of the note F and the contrasts between chords, textures and sudden dynamic changes.
The permutated chords, beginning 3 bars after 25, inserted in 9 second units, will create a much calmer mood that will stay till the end of the piece, though interrupted by a dramatic repetition of a single chord 45 seconds long and, in number 27, by a succession of very loud and slowly chords, preparing the end of the piece.
It seems to me that this last variation is a kind of long recitative where the phrases —melodies, chord successions — are marked by long rests and repeating notes.
At the opening, Nunes uses bars with 5, 4, 8 and 10 seconds: a total of 27 seconds, i. Later he uses 18 2x9 , 27 3x9 and 45 5x9 second bars. As Nunes wrote at the end of the piece, this work should be ca. A diagram was made, trying to use all indications written by the composer in terms of time, metre, dynamics, resonance chords and notes. The result is a spatial conversion of the work its time and dynamic properties proposing a division in units one second. This diagram shows: 1. These three moments score numbers , and are relevant for its strong effect of uncertainty, of quick changes, of contrasts between quick attack and the underlying long resonance pauses; 2.
The works were carefully studied by Emmanuel Nunes and served as a starting-point from where he had the opportunity to discuss his ideas about music, composition, and about his own experiences as a composer. On the second day I played his piece Litanies du feu et de la mer II.
Emmanuel Nunes recalled that his plan had been to compose three pieces — three studies of the relation between intervals — using the piano resonances and based on several years of improvisation experiences in Paris. It was clear that Nunes wanted a very exact performance: he referred to the small differences in the dynamics of the first bars, which for Nunes corresponded to an expressive way of performing a melody. Some other important points were the following.
Interestingly, Nunes related how the dynamics and articulation marks were added later, improvised, written after all the notes and other parameters been established. Harmony was also extremely important, being seen by Nunes as a very rich form of expressiveness. In quick passages with chords number 13 , he told me as an experiment to play one of the chords and carefully listen to it; and to repeat it with this or that note louder, and hear the difference.
My understanding was that his fascination for harmony was not for the evolution of chords, but for the evolution — the movement — "inside" one chord, its effect in different positions, in its relation to other pitches that appear as ornaments or as constellations of ornaments.
The role of sustained notes and chords, which form an important harmonic feature. Linked with this particular interest in harmony are the different passages where one chord is constantly repeated.
As is written at the end of the score, some chords must be repeated many times, decreasing dramatically the number of occurrences number of chords per second. It is, in fact, a very sudden decrease, as Nunes pointed out: the passage three bars before number 27, begins with three chords each second and ends with one chord over 8 seconds.
At the end of these passages the chord must be repeated once in the quick tempo before the last chord. As these rallentandi are very quick and graduated, the graphics that follow help to show how they should be performed.
The passage in bar 2 to score numbers 13 presents us the first of such rallentandi, with a decrescendo from f to pp. The next passage of this kind is two bars before score number The passage two bars before score number 24 is a crescendo from pppp to a ff and then p.
The last passage of this kind is a little more complex due to the changes of dynamics: p to f, then p to ff, then pp to fff. After the composition of the piece, Emmanuel Nunes considers these two kinds of musical thought as equally important, demanding a careful performance of the chord notes, of the rhythms pre-worked and of the dynamics improvised.
Litanies are supplications, sung by one individual the deacon answered by the congregation. The character is of a cyclical repetition, a plea for something, a musical phrase repeated with small differences but with always the same end.
A litany can also be much more complicated. The antiphon Deprecamus Te — also a litany — is divided into three sections, the first invoking God, the second a supplication 16 and the third an appeal to hear this supplication. In the Litania Lauretana the Agnus Dei is included at the end as a closing separate section. From the Renaissance to the 18th century many composers composed litanies that are elaborate polyphonic pieces, many of them dedicated to the Virgin Lassus, Palestrina, Victoria, Monteverdi, Charpentier, Mozart.
This is a common harmonic basis that works like the harmonic modal basis of ancient litanies: the pitches D, E, G, A and Bb. These pitches are the most played in the piece as a whole, and also among the most used in each single section. In the second and third variations, this pentatonic succession appears in many ways: excluding other pitches as in the first variation , opposing other groups of pitches, chords, etc. But always the basic pitches are prominent.
The fact that Nunes uses this pentatonic scale is, perhaps, a way of approaching the modal character of religious litanies. Litanies are short phrases — supplications — which respect a rhythmic cycle: every phrase ends with a pause so that the singer can breathe. As in litanies sung in medieval music, sometimes these pauses are very long, in order to let the sound flow and end. This rhythmic gesture appears also in Nunes: excepting some longer phrases in numbers 11, 12, two bars before 22, 6 bars before 23 and number 24 the music flows in short successions interrupted by pauses.
These pauses let the "people" the pianist and the audience breathe and hear the sostenuto pedal and the vibration of the strings that are kept free.
Or, simply, these pauses create space for the next sound gesture. The fire is a strong symbol of energy, of power, of life.
The ancient Persian and Indian religions refer to God as the sun — as fire — and the Holy Spirit appears in Christian iconography as a fire over the head. The fire symbolises also enlightenment, faith, and is the power that created the earth. Fire is one of the elements of life. The other element is water.
Water — and the sea — symbolises the mother of life: everything, every life form comes initially from the water and from the sea; mammals, before birth, are submerged in water, most of the space on the surface of the earth is sea; water nourishes the land, the plants and the animals, water washes dirt away also spiritual dirt ; water is always present in everyday life and in spiritual life in its various forms, as sea, clouds, rain, river, wine, blood, etc.
Fire and water are the basic symbols of energy and of matter. But water and fire are opposed symbols: in some physical and mythical conditions they can eventually produce life, but normally they neutralise each other. As in other European music, the more calm and static passages, with little harmonic or rhythmic changes, can be seen as the sea, and the more dramatic passages as the fire.
As examples, the long repeating passages from number 11 to 14 and the last section after number 23 could be the sea element.
In contrast, the dramatic passage at number 22 could symbolise the fire. But these elements — sea and fire — can be understood in other ways. The first variation can be seen as an invocation of God and of the sea, the second and the third as a supplication, transforming the sea element by the energy of fire, the last variation a long appeal to God, invocating the two elements.
Other more elaborated literary interpretations can be made, depending on the interests and the kind of approach to the musical work. But they present only one of an indefinite number of possibilities of interpretation Such interpretations, aiming a denotative 19 understanding of the piece, elucidate perhaps more about the characteristics of the subject or group that is interpreting the work than about the work itself.
Nevertheless, they can help the pianist to structure this very long — and difficult — piece in its study, and during live performance. I think that Litanies du feu et de la mer Litanies of the fire and of the sea are supplications to two basic opposing elements — to any basic opposing elements — here symbolised by fire and sea.
They refer to a dialectic vision of the world, to the dynamic of energy and matter, to the opposition between past pentatonic and present chromatic , or between faith a litany and reality fire and sea. And 20 the fire element would be the act of composition itself, the structural attitude of Nunes in the development of the musical matter, even Nunes's personality and its force as the motor that created the piece.
He then chooses to leave France to fight on the Eastern Front , cryptically declaring he is "off to Hell. A film, Le Silence de la mer , based on the book and directed by Jean-Pierre Melville , was released in This film was awarded at the Festival of Fiction of Saint-Tropez in three awards: Simon Evans directed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Le Silence de la mer film. For the film, see Le Silence de la Mer film. Novels portal. Authority control BNF: Retrieved from " https: