Lake District map in relief (PDF) · Coniston Boating Centre map; Visit our Rangers page for maps showing parish boundaries and who looks after which area. The three themes relating to the Lake District World Heritage award are: The Lake District, Cumbria, is a region of incredible beauty famous for its stunning. Let us help you plan your visit to the Lake District, Cumbria with our great selection of free Guides. Every year here at Cumbria Tourism, we produce around , printed guides, to help visitors to the area. These include our Flagship Annual Holiday Guide alongside handy pocket.
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An insider's travel guide to holidays in the Lake District. With a useful itinerary planner and inspirational content, this Highlands and Islands guide is a handy tool. Days out at Visit Cumbria - The Lake District Attractions Guide , situated in Cumbria - Cumbria tourism's official guide showcasing Download PDF leaflet. The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West "The state of farming and land management in the Lake District " (PDF). khadictasmimou.ml Retrieved 2 December ^ "Forestry Commission .
The line gives railway enthusiasts and others a flavour of a pre- Beeching railway line, with features like manually operated level crossing gates, as well as giving a good connection to the steam railway into Eskdale and providing access for cyclists and serious walkers to the Western Fells.
Another heritage railway , the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway , runs between Lake Windermere and Haverthwaite , and tourists can connect at Lakeside with the boats up the lake to Bowness.
A vehicle-carrying cable ferry , the Windermere Ferry , runs frequent services across Windermere. Footpaths and bridleways[ edit ] There are many paths over which the public has a right of way , all of which should be signposted. There is also a general " right to roam " in open country. Historically these paths were not planned for reaching summits, but more recently they are used by fell walkers for that purpose. Motor vehicles are only allowed on "byways open to all traffic" green lanes but in practice Traffic Regulation Orders have been brought in on several prohibiting motor traffic, although a system of permits operates on Gatesgarth Pass.
Most of these valleys display the U-shaped cross-section characteristic of glacial origin, and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows, often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads.
Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District. The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky, while moorland predominates at lower altitudes.
Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather , though much of the land is boggy , due to the high rainfall.
Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line , but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grizedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area. Panorama of the Wasdale screes descending into Wastwater, the deepest lake in England.
The valleys break the mountains up into separate blocks, which have been described by various authors in different ways. In terms of natural splendour, nowhere in England can compare to the Lake District.
Coverage includes: View Full Details. Packed with detailed pre-planning information, amazing experiences, inspirational images, city walks and the best local knowledge, these are our most comprehensive country guides, designed to immerse you in a culture, discover the best sights and get off the beaten track. Take that small first step towards making your travel dreams come true.
Choose just the chapters you want. PDF format only. See terms and view delivery times. download 2, get a 3rd FREE! The southeastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale.
There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow.
Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area. Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere , Coniston Water , Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common.
The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below. The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied. Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run south west to north east. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from north west to south east. The north western band is composed of early to mid- Ordovician sedimentary rocks , largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin.
Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.
The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid-to-late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group , erupted as the former Iapetus Ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows.
These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike.
These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells. The south eastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes successively the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere. Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups.
Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar. The Lake District's location on the northwest coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the wettest part of England. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall.
March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months. Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year.
The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year.
During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further wet days, and dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.
The Lake District is home to a great variety of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort , two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain.
The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England out of the estimated , red squirrels in the United Kingdom, compared with about 2. The female golden eagle has not been seen since although the male still remains.
Ospreys now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District, and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species.
In , the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe.
Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species. The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food.
There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years.
It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach , are only at risk for as little as three days.
Farming, and in particular sheep farming , has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick , with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common.
Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls , for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.
The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed , that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations.
With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be relearnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf". Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass , in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places.
There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees. With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes , examples of which have been found all over Britain.
The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.
Mining, particularly of copper, lead often associated with quantities of silver , baryte , graphite and slate , was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th to 19th centuries. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines , at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine workings can be found on fellsides throughout the district.
The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick. In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income. Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale.
Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:. He commented on Westmorland that it was:.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe , restricting the possibility of travel there. West listed "stations", viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values.
At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights can be visited today.
This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south west of the Lake District. The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The line to Coniston opened in although until this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness ; the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in ; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry.
Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater , Windermere, Coniston Water , and Derwent Water. The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down.
The formation of the Lake District National Park in recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lake District, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the s, certain areas have been very congested.
Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to Lakeland by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between and , these books provided detailed information on fells across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area.
They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights.
The famous guides were revised by Chris Jesty between and to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths, and are currently being revised by Clive Hutchby, the author of The Wainwright Companion. The first of the revised volumes, Book One: The Eastern Fells, was published in March Since the early s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt , who has since written a number of guide books.
He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.
The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however.
Soil erosion , caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect overused paths. In , two tourist information centres in the National Park were closed.